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美国本科文书写作的这12条技巧你知道吗

2018-11-27来源: 互联网浏览量:
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  申请美国本科留学时,文书是一项重要的申请材料。那么,大家在写文书时,有什么禁忌吗?你的文书怎么才能写出美国人心目中的好的一面呢?啄木鸟教育今天为大家总结了12条美国本科申请文书写作的小技巧。

  1.慎用美式英语中一些含有否定意义的词汇

  Be careful of using words that have a negative meaning in American English. The word “propaganda,” for example, means something like “government-controlled brainwashing” in the US. (Your best choice is to use the words “marketing” or“publicity” if you want to indicate that you organized a campaign to raise awareness of a certain problem.)

  Likewise, in the US we do not use the words“cripple” and “retarded”; we use “handicapped” (or even better, “disabled”) and“developmentally disabled” or “mentally challenged.” We don’t call old people“old people”—we call them “elders” or “the elderly.” And we prefer “businessperson” or “business professional” to “businessman.”

  慎用美式英语中一些含有否定意义的词汇。例如,“propaganda”这个词在美国就有点“政府洗脑式”的宣传的意思了。(如果你想要表达你发起一项运动来提高人们对于某一问题的认识的话,最好选用“marketing”或是“publicity”。)

  同样的,在美国,也不会用“cripple”或者是“retarded”之类的词,取而代之的是“handicapped”(disabled更好)以及“developmentally disabled”或“mentally disabled”。我们在称呼老人时也不直接用“old people”,而是用“elders”或是“the elderly”。我们也不经常用“businessman”,而是用“businessperson”或“business professional ”。

  2.变换句子的长短

  Vary the length of the sentences in your essay. If you have written several long sentences in a row, insert a short sentence to give the reader a break. Variety in your sentences will make your essay easier to read (and thus more memorable).

  It also demonstrates that you have a superior command of the English language. And don’t be afraid of including a one-sentence paragraph. Aone-sentence paragraph (especially at the beginning or end of your essay) will be very dramatic and grab the reader’s attention.

  变换句子的长短。如果你已经连续用了几个长句,那么插入一个短句能给读者一个停顿的时间。句式多样化能够使你的短文更容易懂,因而也更容易让人记住。这样的句式变换也证明你的英语语言掌握的比较好。同时不要害怕运用一句式段落。一句式段落,(尤其是在短文的开头结尾)会很出彩,也会吸引读者的注意力。

  3.不要试图费力地运用一些特别长的句子或者特别大的词汇

  If English is your second language,don’t try to make it hard on yourself by writing really long sentences and using large vocabulary words. (Don’t say “internationalization”; just say“international.”

  Why use “metropolis” when you can just use “city”?) Remember that the readers are not hoping to be impressed by your vocabulary—they want tobe impressed by your story.

  如果英语是你的第二语言,那么不要试图费力地运用一些特别长的句子或者特别大的词汇。(不要用“internationalization”,用“international”就好了。另外,如果你可以用“city”,为什么要用“metropolis”呢?)记住,读者并不希望被你的词汇打动,而是被你的故事所打动。

  4.对自己研究过的项目进行详细说明

  If you are applying to graduate school, your personal statement will need to include detailed evidence of your research. For example, if you are applying toa graduate program in biology, your PS should include specific deions of experiences you have had, such as research projects, internships, work in biological laboratories, and such.

  The other key elements for graduate study applications are what you want to study, the field you are interested in, the background you have, why you have chosen this particular program, and your plans after graduation.

  如果你正在申请研究生院校,那么你的个人简历就需要包括你研究项目的一些详细的说明。例如,如果你正在申请生物专业的研究生项目,那么你的个人简历就需要对你的研究经历进行详细的描述,比如你的研究项目,实习经历,以及在生物实验这方面的工作等等。研究生学习申请的其他的一些关键因素还包括:你想要研究什么,你对哪一个领域感兴趣,你的个人背景,选择这一研究项目的原因以及毕业后的打算。

  5.避免运用一些不恰当的理由

  Avoid using inappropriate reasons for why a particular college is attractive to you. (I have actually seen essays where the applicant described how much he “loved” the University of Chicago and wanted to date her, and another where the applicant wrote that NYU was attractive because she just loved the color purple on theNYU website.) You must read the website carefully to discover specific programs, activities, curricula, distinguished professors (and the like) that you can point to and say, “THIS is why I want to go to University X.”

  在说明某所大学为何对你有吸引力时,避免运用一些不恰当的理由。(曾经看过申请者在短文中描述自己是如何如何热爱芝加哥大学,并想要和它约会的,而另一个人则在短文中说纽约大学吸引她仅仅是因为她喜欢纽约大学网站上的紫色)。

  你必须仔细浏览学校官方网站,以便发现一些具体的项目、活动、课程,以及著名的教授,诸如此类的,然后你就可以在短文中指出这就是你想要去XX大学的原因。

  6.不要只在短文中陈述学校多么好

  Do not tell the school how good it is. “I want to attend the prestigiousUniversity X because it is a top US college with an international reputation,”just sounds insincere.

  不要只在短文中陈述学校多么好。“我想要申请著名的XX大学,因为它是美国一所顶尖的大学,在国际上都享有盛誉。”这样说的话会显得不真诚。

  7.吸引读者的眼球

  Catch the reader’s attention in the first sentence of your essay by writing something dramatic or humorous. In one excellent essay I read, the applicant (hoping to major in entomology), wrote this: “Ahhhh! There are bugs in the shampoo!'Doesn't that make you want to read more? (He then went on to describe how his mother had found one of his “science experiments” involving insects, and how experiences like this made him want to study entomology.)

  在短文的开头写一些富有戏剧性的或者是幽默的东西,以吸引读者的眼球。曾有一篇优秀的短文,申请人想要修昆虫学专业,开头他是这样写的:“啊,洗发露里竟然有虫子!读完,难道你不会想要继续读下去吗?(接下来他又描述了他的母亲如何发现了他的一次昆虫“科学实验”,以及这些经历是怎样使他最终想要研究昆虫学的。)

   8.首尾呼应

  If you start with a story, you can end with some reference to the same story. (Our entomology student, for example, could then mention his mother’s shock again in his last paragraph.)

  如果你是以一个故事开头的,那么你可以在结尾的时候再提一下这个故事,所谓“点题”(例如,这位昆虫学的学生在最后一段再次提到他的母亲对他这些行为有多震惊。)

   9.恰当的引用能够大大增强文章的可信度。

  Well-chosen quotations can add powerful credibility to your essay. All you need to do is decide what the key concept of your essay is (such as strength, honor, or patience)and then use the internet to find quotations that use any of these keywords.The best quotations come from persons who are well-known to both Chinese andAmerican readers, and they must be admirable persons. (Past American andChinese presidents are good examples.) The quote should be short, about one powerful sentence in length. Including a striking quotation in your essay is particularly persuasive if you are applying to a humanities program or want to be an English major, as it demonstrates the breadth of your reading.

  恰当的引用能够大大增强文章的可信度。而你需要做的就是选定你的文章所要表达的关键点,(比如说个人特长,获得的荣誉,或者是参加的实践活动等等),然后再根据这些关键词在网上搜索有关这方面的引文。

  最好的引文是出自那些在中国和美国读者中都比较有名并且令人敬佩的人。(前任美国总统,中国主席这些都是比较好的例子。)引文最好简短有力,大概一句那么长。如果你想要申请人文学科项目或者是想要学英语专业,那么这样漂亮的引文会使文章非常有说服力的,因为这样的引用可以证明你阅读广泛。

  10.突出自己的个性

  Your purpose in writing your essay is to come across as a unique individual, one who stands out from all the other applicants and one whose writing style is lively, fresh, and different. For undergraduate essays, the personal details of your life and the struggles you have had to overcome will make good stories. Good stories are memorable. You don’t have to be a perfect person; indeed, it may be that any “flaws” you have will convince the reader that you are a muti-faceted person who learns from your mistakes. These flaws don’t have to be terrible:You can describe the time that you made complete a fool of yourself before your friends. (Americans call this the “My most embarrassing moment” essay.) Then tell the reader what you learned from this experience.

  你的写作目的是为了突出你是一个独特的个体,一个在众多申请者中脱颖而出的人,而你的写作风格也应是生动活泼,新颖清新,与众不同的。对于本科生的文书写作来说,你的个人的生活经历以及奋斗历程都会成为比较好的故事素材。好的故事一定是令人印象深刻的。当然你不必是一个非常完美的人,相反恰恰是这些缺点会使读者相信你是多面的,你是能够从错误中吸取教训的。这些缺点不必是一些特别严重的:你可以描述你在朋友面前出糗的一次经历(美国称这类的文章为“我最尴尬时刻”类文章)。然后再告诉读者你从这次经历中学到了什么。

   11.尽可能使你的文章具体一些

  Always try to make your writing as “concrete” as possible, meaning that you provide specific examples (or stories) to support your main points. Instead of just writing, for example, “I spent two months doing chemistry research,” describe the nature of that research, what process you used, and what it taught you. Depth is more important than breadth.

  The reader will be more impressed by specific details about ONE of your experiences then a list of twenty experiences. (Save the list of experiences for your resume.)

  尽可能使你的文章具体一些,这就意味着你要提供一些具体的事例或故事来支撑你的主要观点。例如,不要只是写“我做过两个月的化学研究”,而是应该详细地描述一下这次研究的性质,采用的方法,以及你收获了什么。文章的深度比广度更重要。比起罗列一堆你的个人经历,你的某一次经历中的一些细节更能打动读者(你可以把这些经历用在简历上)。

  12.陈述你的宗教信仰也是完全可以的

  It is perfectly all right to describe your particular religion in an undergraduate essay. Readers in the US come from many different religious backgrounds and the admission officers will most likely be broad-minded and tolerant. The main thing is not to try and “convert” the reader—you simply want to show how being a Buddhist (or a Catholic, or a Christian, or whatever) has had a profound impact on your life.

  本科文书中陈述你的宗教信仰也是完全可以的。美国读者大都来自不同的宗教背景并且学校招生人员也都是心胸比较宽广的人。但不必试图改变读者的宗教信仰,你只需说明作为一名佛教徒(或者是天主教徒、基督徒等等)给你带来了怎样重大的影响。



本文关键字:美国本科文书,美国本科文书写作,美国本科文书写作技巧
编辑: cutie
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