Normally, seeds of Emmenathe penduliflora staydormant for years and germinate only when a fire burns through their habitat.Nitrogen dioxide in the smoke induces the seeds to germinate. Fires clear thebrush, allowing germinating seeds to receive the sunlight they need to grow.The plants mature quickly, produce seeds, and then die. In areas with heavyautomobile traffic, however, the seed germinates in the absence of fire, withautomobile exhaust supplying the required nitrogen dioxide.
1. The information given, if accurate, most strongly supports which ofthe following hypotheses?
A. Fires in the habitat of E. Penduliflora do not entirely destroy theplant’s seeds even in the places where the fires burn most intensely.
B. The nitrogen dioxide in automobile exhaust cannot harm plants of E.Penduliflora after germination.
C. If human intervention decreases the number of fires in the habitatof E. Penduliflora, automobile exhaust can replicate the conditions the plantrequires in order to thrive.
D. Within the habitat of E. Penduliflora, natural fires aresignificantly more frequent in areas with heavy automobile traffic than theyare in other areas.
E. Unless E. Penduliflora seeds that have germinated can survive in theshade, automobile exhaust threatens the long-term survival of the plant in areaswith heavy automobile traffic.
Architectural morphology is the study of how shifting cultural andenvironmental conditions produce changes in an architectural form. When appliedto the mission churches of New Mexico exemplifying seventeenth- andeighteenth-century Spanish colonial architecture in what is now thesouthwestern United States, architectural morphology reveals much about howNative American culture transformed the traditional European churcharchitecture of the Spanish missionaries who hoped to convert Native Americansto Christianity.
Many studies of these mission churches havecarefully documented the history and design of their unique architectural form,most attribute the churches’ radical departure from their sixteenth-centuryEuropean predecessors to local climate and a less-mechanized buildingtechnology. Certainly, the limitations imposed by manual labor and the locallyavailable materials of mud-brick and timber necessitated a divergence from theoriginal European church model. However, the emergence of a church form suitedto life in the Southwest was rooted in something more fundamental than materialand technique. The new architecture resulted from cultural forces in both theSpanish colonial and indigenous Native American societies, each with competingideas about form and space and different ways of conveying these ideassymbolically.
For example, the mission churches share certainspatial qualities with the indigenous kiva,a round, partly subterranean roomused by many Southwest Native American communities for important rituals. Likethe kiva it was intended to replace, the typical mission church had thick wallsof adobe (sun-dried earth and straw), a beaten-earth floor, and one or twosmall windows. In deference to European custom, the ceilings of these churcheswere higher than those of the traditional kiva. However, with the limitedlighting afforded by their few small windows, these churches still suggest thekiva's characteristically low, boxlike, earth-hugging interior. Thus, althoughpragmatic factors of construction may have contributed to the shape of themission churches, as earlier studies suggest, the provision of a sacred spaceconsistent with indigenous traditions may also have been an importantconsideration in their design.
The continued viability of the kiva itself inSpanish mission settlements has also been underestimated by historians.Freestanding kivas discovered in the ruins of European-style missionarycommunities have been explained by some historians as examples of “superposition”. Under this theory, Christiandomination over indigenous faiths is dramatized by surrounding the kiva withChristian buildings. However, as James Ivey points out, such superposition wasunlikely, since historical records indicate that most Spanish missionaries,arriving in the Southwest with little or no military support, wisely adopted asomewhat conciliatory attitude toward the use of the kiva at least initially.This fact, and the careful, solitary placement of the kiva in the center of themission-complex courtyards, suggests an intention to highlight the importanceof the kiva rather than to diminish it.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. correct some misinterpretations about the development of an architecturalform
B. compare the traditional church architectures oftwo different cultures
C. examine the influence of a religious architectural style on secularbuildings
D. explain the nature of the contrast between two different architecturalstyles
E. trace the European roots of an architectural style used in the United Stales
2. The passage suggests that the indicatedhistorians regarded the placement of kivas in the midst of Christian buildingsas which of the following?
A. exemplary of an arrangement of religiousbuildings typical of a kind of Native American architecture common prior to thearrival of the Spanish
B. largelyresponsible for the evolution of a distinctive Spanish mission architecturalstyle
C. indicative of theSpanish missionaries’ desire to display an attitude of acceptance toward thekiva
D. symbolic of the controversy amongSpanish missionaries in New Mexico regarding their treatment of the indigenouspopulation
E. reflective of the Spanish missionary’sdesire to diminish the kiva's importance
3. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argumentabout the Spanish missionaries’ attitude toward the kiva?
A. The period of most intensive settlement by Spanish missionaries in theSouthwest occurred before the period in which the mission churches of NewMexico were built.
B. There are no traces of kivas in Spanish mission settlements that wereprotected by a large military presence.
C. Little of the secular Spanish colonial architecture of the Southwest of theseventeenth and eighteenth centuries is predominantly European in style.
D. Some Spanish missionary communities of the seventeenth and eighteenthcenturies were attached to Spanish military installations.
E. New Mexico contains by far the largest concentration of Spanishmission-style church architecture in the United States.
4. According to the passage, the buildingtechniques prevailing in the Southwest during the seventeenth and eighteenthcenturies played a role in which of the following?
A. preventing missionaries in the Southwestfrom duplicating traditional European churches
B. influencingmissionaries in the Southwest to incorporate a freestanding kiva into certainmission settlements
C. causingmissionaries in the Southwest to limit the building of churches to New Mexicoonly
D. jeopardizing theviability of Spanish religious settlements throughout the Southwest
E. encouraging many missionaries in theSouthwest to reexamine the continued viability of a highly ceremonial European religioustradition
The waters east of Cape Hangklip were once thecenter of a lucrative wild-caught abalone fishery, but illegal fishing in themid-1990s escalated to such levels that the recreational fishery was closed in2003. When abalones did not rebound, commercial fishing was also banned.Continue declines in abalone were attributed to poaching, but an invasion byrock lobsters during the early 1990s probably intensified the trend. Rocklobsters prey on sea urchins, and increased rock lobster densities coincidedwith significant decreases in urchins. In that area, urchins feed largely bytrapping drift kelp, and in doing so provide juvenile abalone with bothprotective shelter and nourishment. Without urchins’ presence, juvenileabalones are less likely to survive to adulthood.
1. According to the passage, since the early 1900s, sea urchins in thewaters east of Cape Hangklip have
A. significantly changed their feeding habits
B. suffered increased predation from a certain species
C. experienced increased competition for kelp, their main source ofnourishment
D. seen a sharp decline in the availability of kelp, due toenvironmental changes
E. rebounded as commercial fishing in the region has declined
2. According to the passage, which of the following is a true statementabout the feeding behaviors of sea urchins
A. They change according to the type of food available in an area.
B. They are responsible for the decline of abalones in some regions.
C. They have a significant impact on the young of another species.
D. They make sea urchins more vulnerable to potential predators.
E. They result in marked decline in certain regions.
Late-eighteenth-century English culturalauthorities seemingly concurred that women readers should favor history, seenas edifying, than fiction, which was regarded as frivolous and reductive. Readers of Marry AnnHanway’snovel Andrew Stewart, or the Northern Wanderer, learning that its heroinedelights in David Hume’s and Edward Gibbon’s histories, could conclude that she was more virtuous andintelligent than her sister, who disdains such reading. Likewise, while the naïve,novel-addicted protagonist of Jane Austen’sNorthanger Abbey, Catherine Morland, finds history a chore, the sophisticated,sensible character Eleanor Tilney enjoys it more than she does the Gothicfiction Catherine prefers. Yet in both cases, the praise of history is moredouble-edged than it might actually appear. Many readers have detected aprotofeminist critique of history in Catherine’sprotest that she dislikes reading books filled with men “and hardly any women at all.”Hanway, meanwhile, brings a controversial political edge to herheroine’s reading, listing the era’s two most famous religiousskeptics among her preferred authors. While Hume’shistory was generally seen as being less objectionable than his philosophy,there were widespread doubts about his moral soundness even as a historian bythe time that Hanway was writing, and Gibbon’sperceived tendency to celebrate classical paganism sparked controversy from thefirst appearance of his history of Rome.
1. The author’s primary purpose is that
A. the evidence used in support of a particular argument isquestionable
B. a distinction between two genres of writing has been overlooked
C. a particular issue is more complex than it might appear
D. two apparently different works share common features
E. twoeighteenth-century authors held significantly different attitudes toward aparticular
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of Hume’s reputation in the late eighteenth century?
A. He was more regarded as a historian than Gibbon
B. His historical writing, like his philosophical writing, came tobe regarded as problematic
C. He was more well-known for his historical writing than for hisphilosophical writing
D. His historic writing came to be regarded as morally questionablebecause of his association with Gibbon
E. His views aboutclassical paganism brought him disapproval among the general reading public
3. The highlighted sentence exemplifies which of the following?
A. Cultural authorities’attempt to use novels to support their viewabout the value of reading fiction
B. Eighteenth-century women authors’attempts to embody in their work certain cultural authorities’views about reading
C. A point about the educational value of reading books abouthistory
D. An instance in which a particular judgment about the value ofreading history is apparently presupposed
E. A challenge to anassumption about eighteenth-century women’sreading habits
4. The author mentions the “widespread doubts”in order to
A. support a point about the scholarly merit of Hume’s writings
B. contrast Hume’s philosophical writing with his writing on historical subjects
C. suggest that Hanway did not understand the implicit controversydepicting her heroine as reading Hume
D. identify an ambiguity in Hanway’sdepiction of the philosopher in The Northern Wanderer
E. illustrate a point about a way eighteenth-century fictionsometimes represented historians