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托福口语task3的全面解析

2017-11-14来源: 互联网浏览量:
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   托福口语第三题是校园对话问题,包含着阅读听力和口语表达三部分,对于托福口语来说颇为重要。那么托福口语第三题的出题思路是什么?我们又应该抓紧什么答题要点?托福口语第三题该如何备考呢?

  一、设计初衷

  语言的学习最重要的结果是要面对人去传达自己的想法,口语就是面对面交流环节中最重要的一环。贴心的ETS在设计托福口语考试中就加入了campus situation这一环节。校园对话顾名思义,首先这一部分的场景都会设置在校园之中,其次材料都是以对话的形式出现的。在题材的设计上一般也都是同学们在生活中会遇到的情况,比如学校要翻新图书馆,体育馆设备陈旧没法用了建议更换,跑步的时候路面环境太差应该换一换等等。

  二、时间安排

  阅读的读题时间是四十五秒,需要阅读一篇约一百二十词的文章,阅读后会继续听学生的对话。每篇对话的时间不定,短则五十多秒,长则约为一分半。阅读和听力部分全部完成后,准备答题时间为三十秒,作答时间为六十秒。

  三、阅读话题的两种分类

  1. 按照阅读的主题主要分为四类:

  (1). 学校新规定,政策类,例如TPO 12 College Radio Station to Undergo Major Changes。

  (2). 学校新计划类,例如TPO 18 University Choir to Enter Off-Campus Singing Competitions。

  (3). 校园设备更新类,例如TPO 20 Energy costs reach sky-high levels。

  (4). 校园生活质量提升类,例如TPO 24 Close the Campus Coffee house。

  2. 按照文章形式主要分为两大类:

  (1). 学校政策,这一类别在整个考试当中占约70%左右,是主要考察的类别。

  例如TPO 12的College Radio Station to Undergo Major Changes提到,the university is considering making major changes to the college radio station. Changes would include an expansion of the station’s broadcasting range, which would allow the radio’s programming to reach nearby towns.

  (2). 学生意见,这一类别占剩下的约30%的阅读形式。

  例如TPO 1的Letter in Centerville College News提到,the administration has announced plans to acquire a new sculpture for campus. We should all oppose this plan。

  四、阅读常见思路解析

  阅读中提供的是谈话的背景,从上文中可以看出内容十分多样化。在学校提出建议或者学生提出意见后,阅读文章会给出提案或建议产生的两点原因,细节,目的,方案,或者均会提及。这里有一点大家较为普遍的错误认识,就是认为在第三题的阅读中必会出现两点原因。其实不然,在真题和TPO中均出现过没说原因而只是提出两个方案的情况,这时候考生在作答时务必要及时做出调整,给出该题独有的答题框架和模式,不要再照搬常说的原因模板,造成不必要失分。

  五、听力部分常见思路解析

  1. 对话主体:

  听力材料是由两个老伙计的对话构成的,一个是“持有强烈意见人”,一个是“酱油人”。其中,持有强烈意见人会在谈话的开头部分就对阅读中政策或者意见提出肯定或者否定的表述,后面就会给出自己持有此态度的原因和细节。酱油人顾名思义就是基本是打酱油的人,所以她或他的存在只是对话能够持续进行的陪衬而已。对话中,约百分之七十“持有强烈意见人”都是持有反对意见的。下面是对态度进行的详细统计(数据来源是除TPO 35-39外的TPO材料):

  赞同:5, 12, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 28, 29, 30, 32, 40, 43;

  反对:1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 24, 25, 26, 27, 31, 33, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48。

  2. 回答策略:

  对于综合口语的作答很多人都是比较模糊的,其中一些指示性的词和提示往往也容易被人忽略,比如材料中常会有这么一句话:

  Question: The man/woman expresses his/her opinion of the Reading Passage. State his/her opinion and explain the reason he/she gives for holding that opinion.

  这个提示就告诉考生你的答案中必须包含三个内容:

  1. Reading passage

  2. State his/her opinion

  3. Explain the reason he/she gives for holding that opinion

  其中第一个点是考生最容易忽略的,如果不需要陈述阅读内容的话,ETS为什么要花那么多精力去撰写,给你那么长时间去准备呢?所以存在即合理,要把握和利用好出题人给的条件和要求。

  第二点阐释观点,已经在上文提到过,这里不再赘述,你就表述她或他支持还是反对的意见即可。

  第三点是占据我们答案最多的部分,也是比较难以取舍和把控的部分,这里笔者将对常见的论述的套路进行解析和抽离。

  3. 论述内容套路分析:

  (1). 描述细节

  例如TPO 3, 阅读中学校要让学生吃冷的早餐:

  (woman) Do you believe any of this? It’s ridiculous.

  (man) What do you mean? It is important to eat healthy foods.

  (woman) Sure it is! But they are saying a yogurt is better for you than an omelet or than hot cereal? I mean, whether something is hot or cold, that shouldn’t be the issue. Let’s say maybe on a really cold morning, in that case, which is going to be better for you, a bowl of cold cereal or a nice warm omelet? It’s obvious. There’s no question.

  (2). 给出具体例子

  例如TPO 12, 阅读中学校要对radio station进行大改变:

  (woman) Besides, the whole university will benefit from it.

  (man) What do you mean?

  (woman) Well, you know my friend Tony, right? He told me that the radio station at his university did something like this about five years ago.

  (man) And?

  (woman) Well, it’s a success! They are making a lot of money out of commercials and they are using it to offer more scholarships and to help fund projects to renovate the facilities of other programs.

  (man) That sounds really good.

  (3). 有序列举

  例如TPO 30, 阅读中学生建议学校的建设工程其实可以在暑假进行:

  (woman) Yeah, I do. Take his first reason. Like, I know you don’t drive, but I do drive here every day, so I need a place to park my car. And remember last year when they decided to repair some of the parking lots?

  (man) Oh yeah, I remember that, there was a lot of work going on, wasn't there? Starting in December.

  (woman) Right, at least four lots were closed, and that meant there weren't enough parking spots for students and professor’s cars. I usually had to circle around looking for parking on one of the streets. And then walk from the street all the way to my classes.

  (man) That’s annoying.

  (woman) Yeah, and it happened to a lot of other people in my classes too! People were always arriving late because of the trouble they had parking. Sometimes even my professors were late.

  (man) Yeah.

  (woman) And also, his second point? That makes sense too. I mean, for instance, part of the reason those parking lot repairs last year took so long was because of the big snowstorms. They had to keep stopping, sometimes for a week or two at a time, because of snow and ice on the ground.

  (4). 给出原因

  例如TPO 1, 阅读中学生建议不要在校园中建立新的sculpture。

  (woman) Well, you know why Paul is upset. He and his friends are always out there on the lawn right where the sculpture will be, kicking around the soccer ball. Now they’ll just have to use another part of the campus to play.

  (man) Oh! So he just doesn't want to have to move.

  (5). 给出结果

  例如TPO 34, 阅读中学校为学生提供免费导师指导项目。

  (man) I see what you mean, so new students could get access to information about the program from another student’s point of view.

  我们了解完听力常见的展开套路以后,就需要把材料拼装成我们自己的答案了。这里同学们一定要记住一个关键点,也是拿到高分的小窍门,就是两个字:转述!ETS口语出题的目的绝不是培育出一个个的复读机,他们希望考生在了解原文原意的情况下可以灵活地转述,这也的确符合我们的常识。生活中,别人和我们聊天我们怎么可能记住朋友说的每一句话呢,没有必要也没有意义,因为我们只要能把握每场对话的核心和精髓,用自己的话能表达出来就好了。

  同时掌握好阅读和听力中常见的信号词也对我们理顺文章的逻辑关系有很好的帮助,下面是对于常见信号词的总结:

  阅读信号词:

  并列, 递进:and, also, as well as, besides, what's more, in addition

  顺序:first, to begin with, first of all, initially, first thing, first, second, apart from, that, on top of that, more than that, another factor should be taken into consideration is that, finally, last but not least

  列举:and, in addition to, one more thing, also, plus

  转折:but, however, nevertheless, yet, although

  解释:that is, in particular, I mean, in this way, to put it another way, in other words, that is to say, ...so to speak..., Let’s say

  因果:as a result, as a consequence, consequently, therefore, due to, thanks to, on account of, since

  听力常见信号词:

  同意:like, love, in favor of, agree with, supports, excellent, great idea, right thing, reasonable, sounds great, not a bad idea

  反对:dislike, hate, disagree, against, should not, oppose, it is not right, no good, do harm, no benefits, disadvantage

  举例:say, like, for instance, for example, as a good example, by way of example

  列举:first, second, third, another, next, furthermore

  比较:like, as, similarly, at the same time, as well as, on the other hand, in contrast, however

  对比:in spite of, on the contrary, instead, whereas, unlike, regardless

  强调:especially, remember that, pay particular attention to, a main concern, a key feature

  总结:all in all, in short, in a word, in brief, to summarize, to sum up, to recap, in conclusion, on the whole, altogether, in a nutshell, to cut a long story short, thus

  以上就是对于托福口语第三题常见的出题思路和托福口语答题要点的总结,同学们在平时最重要的还是苦练基本功,强化自己的听力和获取信息的能力,如果能将上面提到的规律和方法熟练掌握,那么对于获取高分就是如虎添翼了。

  相关推荐:

  托福口语25分的五个必注意点

  托福口语高分必备的三点



本文关键字:托福口语,托福备考,托福口语答题要点
编辑: keri
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